Palm date, monocotyledon and indigenous to tropical regions, has huge leaves and is categorized as palm trees. Its edible fruit has a hard seed, a thin skin, and a sweet taste which hangs on a palm in the form of a cluster. The height of the palm is 10 to 20 meters(or more) tall.

The unripe date is called “KHARAK” or “KHARAK” or “KONG”. In Arabic language however, the unripe date is called “HABABOOK”. “ROTAB” is another name associated with non-fully ripe dates which have a moist texture and contain less sugar compared with fully ripe ones.


Date belongs to the family of berry whose entire fleshy part is edible and nutritious. It has been an integral part of human’s diet since ancient times.




Information about dates

The term date has a Persian root which has been loaned to other languages such as Indian, Urdu, Turkish, Indonesian, and Malaysian. Nutritional value


Dates provide a wide range of essential nutrients. The sugar content of dates is as follows: %25 sucrose and %50 glucose. The remainder is albuminoidal substances as well as pectin and water. In addition, they contain diverse vitamins such as A, B, C, E, and some minerals.


Plantation history

Information about dates 

Golden date: The date palm grows in tropical and semi-tropical regions such as Iran. Although it is believed to have been originated from Mesopotamia, Saudi Arabia, and northern Africa, the scientific studies reveal that the date palm is a member of a species called” P.H. SIVESTRIS” which is indigenous to India. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation dating back to 50 centuries ago. Archeologists are of the opinion that palm-tree gardens were created 5,000 years ago. Date palms have been planted in Iran since ancient times and before Achaemenid dynasty. This tree has been referred to in SASANIAN literature, i.e. the book “BANDHASHAN”. In Chinese reference books, the country of Iran or as pronounced in Chinese language “Bousi” is known as the land of date palm— called Persian jujube and 1,000-year-old jujube in their language. In the late 9th century, the date palm was taken to China from Iran and was planted there. Amongst European countries, Spain has a longer history in growing date palms.


Uses of the date fruit and other parts of the date palm

The leaves and branches of this tree are utilized to make baskets and mats. The seed is ground into powder for making bread. The fruit is processed to produce wine and honey. Inhabitants of deserts grind the date seed into powder and make bread out of it. Similarly, they roast the seed and brew it like coffee beans since it releases a pleasant scent when brewed. It might even be soaked in water for some days so that it can be used as a nutrient feed for their camels.


Date palm and date expressions


Date palm


There are numerous Persian expressions and terms about date palm in date-growing regions in Iran as follows:


MOKH, MOGH, or MOA meaning palm; the names of HORMOZ stripe and HORMOZ region have been derived from AHOURA MAZDA, HORMOZD and HOURMOZD.


FASIL: the main stem of the date palm; in JIROFT, the underbrush is called palm.


TEAM: anything growing from FASIL (main stem) including the trunk and the underbrush


TEAM FASIL: the stems growing next to the main stem


MOH KOSHAK or MOKH KOSH: a shrub stemming from FASIL (the main stem) which are called JONG in the city of BAM and NARMASHIR.


ABAR: pollen produced by the male date palms which is called BOO in the city of BAM and NARMASHIR.


GALEH BESHKAN or TARAKI: one of the pests of palm date


TAZOOGH: a cockroach harming date palm


MOSHTAB: a small container or a silo for separating dates from the cluster and extracting its syrup


PANG: cluster




TAREH: date cluster when the fruit is still in its sheath and not petrified yet


PARICHEH or PIRCHEH: the fibers around the date leaf attached to the trunk. PARICHEH is used as washing wool in some areas. It is called “leaf”, “SIS” and “CC” in BUSHEHR, JIROFT, BAM and NARMASHIR respectively.


PISH: date palm leaf


PAGNEH: the end of PISH (leaf) attached to the palm; this part is called “TAPOOL” in BUSHEHR


province; it is called “TAG” in JIROFT; it is called “LATI” in BAM and NARMASHIR.


DOMBAZ: the date fruit which is partly ripe—lower part— like ROTAB, and partly unripe—upper part— like KHARAK.




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